Born from the division and fragmentation of existing political entities, splinter parties can significantly shape political landscapes and policy outcomes. They can be instrumental in forming coalition governments and negotiating policy objectives in exchange for support. In some cases, they serve as kingmakers, holding the balance of power and steering policy decisions.
Splinter parties emerge for a multitude of reasons, ranging from leadership conflicts to ideological differences, personal ambitions, or shifts in the political landscape. They can upset the balance of power by adding new dimensions. But most importantly, splinters pose significant challenges for parent parties.